Cabeza, R. A., Claassen, N.
The roots are the plant organs responsible for water and nutrient absorption which are needed for adequate plant growth. Therefore, it is important to know both the extent and distribution of the root system into the soil since it determines the ability of the plant for mining soil resources, especially in poor soils or soils with low nutrient or water availability. The present work describes the root system of different crops and their relationships with the shoot, and how it determines the efficiency for nutrient uptake. On the other side, we review some morphological adaptations of the root system that improve the absorption of nutrients. This work also describes how the renewal of the root system occurs in a growing season and how it changes or adapts depending on environmental stress factors affecting the plants.